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Suomenlinna

Suomenlinna

Stock Press Photo | Twierdza Suomenlinna

Suomenlinna (z fin. „Twierdza Fińska”; szw. Sveaborg - „Twierdza Szwedzka”) – twierdza w Helsinkach, położona na grupie sześciu wysp niedaleko brzegu. Dawniej miała za zadanie bronić Helsinek od strony morza. Obecnie utraciła walory militarne, posiada jednak wielkie znaczenie kulturowe jako zabytek historyczny i atrakcja turystyczna. W 1991 r. została wpisana na listę światowego dziedzictwa UNESCO.
Wyspy te mają ok. 800 mieszkańców. Znajduje się na nich również muzeum wojskowe (jednym z eksponatów jest „Vesikko” - okręt podwodny z okresu II wojny światowej), morska szkoła wojskowa oraz wiele restauracji i kawiarni dla turystów.

Suomenlinna (Finnish; until 1918 Viapori), or Sveaborg (Swedish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on eight islands about 4 km southeast of the city center of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage site that is popular with tourists and locals, who enjoy it as a picturesque picnic site. Originally named Sveaborg (Castle of the Swedes), or Viapori as called by Finnish-speaking Finns, it was renamed in Finnish to Suomenlinna (Castle of Finland) in 1918 for patriotic and nationalistic reasons, though it is still known by its original name in Sweden and by Swedish-speaking Finns.
The Swedish crown commenced the construction of the fortress in 1748 as protection against Russian expansionism. The general responsibility for the fortification work was given to Augustin Ehrensvärd. The original plan of the bastion fortress was strongly influenced by the ideas of Vauban, the foremost military engineer of the time, and the principles of the star fort style of fortification, albeit adapted to a group of rocky islands.
During the Finnish War, Sweden surrendered the fortress to Russia on 3 May 1808, paving the way for the occupation of Finland by Russian forces in 1809, and the eventual cession of Finland to Russia at the conclusion of the war. Russia held the fortress until Finnish independence in 1918. Finland then managed Suomenlinna through the Defense Department until turning most of it over to civilian control in 1973.
The Suomenlinna district of Helsinki lies southeast of the city centre and consists of eight islands. Five of the islands are connected by either bridges or a sandbar land-bridge. Länsi-Mustasaari (sv: Västersvartö) is bridged to Pikku Mustasaari (sv: Lilla Östersvartö), which is bridged to Iso Mustasaari (sv: Stora Östersvartö), which is bridged to Susisaari (sv: Vargö), which was connected to Susiluoto (sv: Vargskär) by filling in the separating waterway during the Russian period. This island, which has the greatest concentration of fortifications was renamed Gustavssvärd (King Gustav's sword) (fi: Kustaanmiekka) during the construction by Sweden. The three unconnected islands are Särkkä (sv: Långören), Lonna, and Pormestarinluodot. The total land area is 80 hectares (0.8 km²).
Instead of using the normal Finnish postal addressing scheme (consisting of a street name and a house number), the addresses at Suomenlinna consist of a letter code for the island and then a house number. For example, C 83 is house #83 on Iso-Mustasaari (code C). The postal code for the Suomenlinna district is 00190.

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